Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India. The city is widely regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, and is also nicknamed the "City of Joy". In 2011, the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the population of the city and its suburbs was 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India.
优势产业 Competitive industries
Kolkata is the main commercial and financial hub of East and North-East India and home to the Calcutta Stock Exchange. Kolkata is home to many industrial units operated by large public- and private-sector corporations; major sectors include steel, heavy engineering, mining, minerals, cement, pharmaceuticals, food processing, agriculture, electronics, textiles, and jute. Kolkata hosts the headquarters of three major public-sector banks: Allahabad Bank, UCO Bank, and the United Bank of India. Adoption of the "Look East" policy by the Indian government; opening of Sikkim's Nathu La mountain pass, which is located on the border between India and China, to bi-directional international trade; and the interest shown by Southeast Asian countries in expanding into Indian markets are factors that could benefit Kolkata. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion (GDP adjusted for purchasing power parity) making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi.
旅游资源 Tourism resources
Kolkata has long been known for its literary, artistic and revolutionary heritage as the former capital of India, the birthplace of Indian modern literature and artistic thought. Kolkata tends to hold a special taste for literature and art and has a tradition of welcoming new geniuses, making it a "city of wild creativity." Kolkata has many Gothic, Baroque, Romanesque, Eastern and Indo-Islamic buildings, often referred to as the "City of the Palace," because of the colonial architecture dotted here. Some of the major colonial-era buildings are preserved, some of which are declared "heritage buildings", the Indian Museum is Asia's oldest museum, the Victoria Memorial is one of Kolkata's major tourist attractions, and the National Library of India is India's best public The library, the Academy of Fine Arts in Calcutta, and other galleries hold regular art exhibitions.
历史文化 History and culture
In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into an increasingly fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, and the East India Company retook it the following year. In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat (local rule), and assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, and later under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement; it remains a hotbed of contemporary state politics. Following Indian independence in 1947, Kolkata, which was once the centre of modern Indian education, science, culture, and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation.