|

加尔各答市简况

发布日期:2021年02月19日 来源:昆明市人民政府外事办公室 【字体:

加尔各答

Kolkata


地理位置 Location

是印度西孟加拉邦首府,在胡格利河东岸,它是印度东部的商业、文化、教育中心。这座城市被广泛认为是印度的“文化之都”,也被称为“欢乐之城”。 2011年,城市人口达到4,500,000,城郊人口达到14,100,000,是印度人口第三大城市。

Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India. The city is widely regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, and is also nicknamed the "City of Joy". In 2011, the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the population of the city and its suburbs was 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India.


优势产业 Competitive industries

加尔各答是印度东部和东北部的主要商业和金融中心,也是加尔各答证券交易所的所在地。加尔各答是许多由大型公共和私营企业经营的工业部门的所在地;主要行业包括钢铁、重型工程、采矿、矿产、水泥、制药、食品加工、农业、电子、纺织品和黄麻。加尔各答是三大国有银行的总部所在地:阿拉哈巴德银行、UCO银行和印度联合银行. 采用印度政府的“向东看”政策;开放位于印度和中国的边界锡金的纳撒拉山口,进行双向国际贸易;东南亚国家在向印度市场扩张方面表现出的兴趣,是让加尔各答受益的因素。最近对加尔各答市区经济的估计,从60亿美元到1500亿美元(按购买力平价调整的GDP),使其成为印度第三大生产城市,仅次于孟买和德里。

Kolkata is the main commercial and financial hub of East and North-East India and home to the Calcutta Stock Exchange. Kolkata is home to many industrial units operated by large public- and private-sector corporations; major sectors include steel, heavy engineering, mining, minerals, cement, pharmaceuticals, food processing, agriculture, electronics, textiles, and jute. Kolkata hosts the headquarters of three major public-sector banks: Allahabad Bank, UCO Bank, and the United Bank of India. Adoption of the "Look East" policy by the Indian government; opening of Sikkim's Nathu La mountain pass, which is located on the border between India and China, to bi-directional international trade; and the interest shown by Southeast Asian countries in expanding into Indian markets are factors that could benefit Kolkata. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion (GDP adjusted for purchasing power parity) making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi.


旅游资源 Tourism resources

加尔各答长期以其文学、艺术和革命遗产著称,作为印度前首都,该城市是印度现代文学和艺术思想的诞生地。加尔各答对于文学艺术趋向于持有特别的欣赏口味,并有着欢迎新来天才的传统,这使得它成为“狂野创造力之城”。加尔各答拥有许多哥特式建筑、巴洛克建筑、罗曼式建筑、东方式和印度-伊斯兰建筑,经常被称为“宫殿之城”,因为这里的殖民地建筑星罗棋布。殖民地时期的一些主要建筑保存完好,其中一些被宣布为“遗产建筑”,印度博物馆是亚洲最古老的博物馆,维多利亚纪念堂是加尔各答主要的观光景点之一,印度国家图书馆是印度最好的公共图书馆,加尔各答美术学院和其他美术馆都举办定期美术展览。

Kolkata has long been known for its literary, artistic and revolutionary heritage as the former capital of India, the birthplace of Indian modern literature and artistic thought. Kolkata tends to hold a special taste for literature and art and has a tradition of welcoming new geniuses, making it a "city of wild creativity." Kolkata has many Gothic, Baroque, Romanesque, Eastern and Indo-Islamic buildings, often referred to as the "City of the Palace," because of the colonial architecture dotted here. Some of the major colonial-era buildings are preserved, some of which are declared "heritage buildings", the Indian Museum is Asia's oldest museum, the Victoria Memorial is one of Kolkata's major tourist attractions, and the National Library of India is India's best public The library, the Academy of Fine Arts in Calcutta, and other galleries hold regular art exhibitions.


历史文化 History and culture

在17世纪晚期,加尔各答的三个村庄被孟加拉人统治。1690年,纳瓦布公司授予东印度公司一个贸易许可证后,该地区被该公司发展为一个日益加强的贸易据点。1756年,印度执行长西拉杰·乌德·达乌拉占领了加尔各答,而东印度公司在次年重新夺回了它。1793年,东印度公司强大到足以废除尼扎马(当地的统治),并拥有该地区的完全主权。在公司统治下,以及后来的英国统治下,加尔各答一直是英属领地的首都,直到1911年,它的地理劣势,再加上孟加拉的民族主义,导致首都迁往新德里。加尔各答是印度独立运动的中心;它仍然是当代国家政治的温床。

1947年印度独立后,曾是现代印度教育、科学、文化和政治中心的加尔各答遭受了数十年的经济停滞。

In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into an increasingly fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, and the East India Company retook it the following year. In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat (local rule), and assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, and later under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement; it remains a hotbed of contemporary state politics. Following Indian independence in 1947, Kolkata, which was once the centre of modern Indian education, science, culture, and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation.


城市图片 Pictures


图片1


图片2